Beiträge in wissenschaftlichen ZeitschriftenLeukel, J.; Sugumaran, V.: Formal correctness of supply chain design. In: Decision Support Systems, 2013 (angenommen).
- Abstract: Many companies use supply chain models for designing the flow of goods and services from their suppliers all the way up to the final customers. Over the past 15 years, the Supply Chain Operations Reference Model (SCOR) has become a widespread modeling technique for designing such supply chains and sharing design information with supply chain stakeholders. However, neither the syntax nor the semantics of SCOR are well defined. This limitation has important consequences for its usage: Supply chain models may be ambiguous and their correctness cannot be verified. We address this problem by mapping SCOR supply chains onto graphs and formalize the semantics of SCOR. The mapping is driven by constructs from the supply chain management literature. The proposed artifact is a supply chain grammar, which we apply to a set of SCOR models taken from industry sources. We show the grammar's usefulness by verifying the correctness of these models using analytical techniques..
- Abstract: Cloud computing is about to change the way of delivering IT services to end users. Service providers are required to re-think both their value proposition and value creation processes. We present a framework for studying these cloud value systems. The framework is grounded on New Institutional Economics and provides means for describing, explaining, and designing cloud value systems.
- Abstract: Supply chains are characterized by multiple firms providing their resources and processes to meeting customer demand in an efficient manner. There exists a great variety of approaches for solving the inherent coordination problem. It has been acknowledged that the autonomy of supply chain participants – and their business objectives – as well as the contractual relations between participants have to be maintained when designing a coordination mechanism. Often, new mechanisms are triggered by innovation in the software industry. This paper adopts the basic idea of Cloud Computing and takes a Cloud perspective on supply chain systems: It proposes to represent supply chains as a set of service offerings and customer demand as service requests; coordination is then a problem of determining optimal service compositions. We evaluate our proposal in a case study of airport service supply chains.
Beiträge zu wissenschaftlichen TagungenScheuermann, A.; Motta, E.; Mulholland, P.; Gangemi, A.; Presutti, V.: An Empirical View on Representing Time. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Knowledge Capture (K-Cap 2013), Banff, Kanada, 23.06.-26.06.2013.
- Abstract: Most Knowledge Representation (KR) research follows a topdown approach: i) formalisms are designed on the basis of modelling needs and computational considerations, and ii) tools and applications based on these formalisms are realized and tested on application domains. As a result, there has traditionally been little attention in the KR research community to user issues, in particular to the usability of alternative modelling solutions. When statements about the intuitiveness of different solutions are found in the literature, these tend to reflect an author’s epistemological standpoint, rather than any concrete user experience. In this paper we take a bottom-up, user-centric perspective and we report on an empirical study where subjects have been asked to represent temporal information and have been provided with alternative design patterns to do so. The study shows that, depending on their experience and level of expertise in KR, users tend to select different patterns for the given modelling problems. In particular, experts appear to choose on the basis of representation power, while naïve users appear to select on the basis of surface features and perceived user-friendliness. Interestingly, while some patterns are indeed perceived to be more intuitive than others, these considerations seem to apply primarily to less experienced users. Indeed, our findings appear to indicate that experts consider issues of ‘intuitiveness’ as secondary and, in contrast with naïve users, may be happy to apply patterns, which can be regarded as counter-intuitive, if they provide the right tool for the job.
- Abstract: Determining the QoS (quality of service) of composite Web services is of high importance for both service providers and service consumers. Heterogeneity of service descriptions, however, often hinders the aggregation of QoS parameters. We propose ontology-based QoS aggregation that integrates the semantics of QoS parameters and their aggregation into the overall aggregation process. The contribution is a QoS aggregation ontology and a QoS aggregation method that uses this ontology. We demonstrate the usefulness of our proposal for designers of composite services and assess its computational efficiency.
- Abstract: The logistics industry is characterized by a high level of collaboration between logistics customers and providers. In fact, sophisticated, knowledge-intense business models such as 4th party logistics providers that are responsible for planning, coordination, and monitoring entire supply chains across logistics companies can be observed. However, integrated approaches for engineering and management of fourth party logistics are rather in its infancy. The Logistics Engineering and Management platform is a service-oriented approach for the development and management of long and mid-term logistics contracts. It serves as a collaboration platform and integrates services from different logistics providers. In this paper a core feature of the platform is presented, a service repository as a single point of truth coping with the complexity of miscellaneous service descriptions and models. Central idea behind this repository is the integration of different specialized service models and the construction of a comprehensive model, which supports direct implementation of services as concrete logistics tasks. In this article we present preliminary results of the service repository's development and realization and an outlook for future research.
- Abstract: In the global race for competitive advantage Knowledge Management gains increasing importance for companies. Purposefully creating and exploiting knowledge demands advanced Information Technology. Since ontologies already constitute a basic ingredient of Knowledge Management, approaches for ontology learning form unstructured data have the potential to bring additional advantages for Knowledge Management. This work presents a study of state-of-the-art research of ontology learning approaches from unstructured data for Knowledge Management. Nine approaches for ontology learning from unstructured data are identified from a systematic review of literature. A six point comparison framework is developed. The comparison results are analyzed, synthesized, and discussed to inform future research on approaches for ontology learning from unstructured data for Knowledge Management.
- Abstract: The complex and volatile global economic environ-ment challenges Supply Chain Management and increases the need for advanced Information Technology. To enable flexible and intelligent management of supply chains, we present an overall approach based upon a combination of Semantic Web Technologies and Service-oriented Computing. This work developes dedicated logistics ontologies for enabling intelligent provision of logistics services.
- Abstract: Der Logistikdienstleistungssektor ist gekennzeichnet durch arbeits teilige, kurz und mittelfristige Zusammenarbeit von spezialisierten Logistik dienstleistern. Insbesondere sogenannte Fourth Party Logistics (4PL) Dienstleister stehen permanent vor der Aufgabe, unterschiedliche Logistikdienstleister und deren Informationssysteme ad hoc und ohne Medienbrüche in unternehmens übergreifende Informationsflüsse zu integrieren. Die Logistik Service Engineering & Management (LSEM) Plattform als Integrationsplattform für 4PL nimmt diese Anforderungen auf und stellt einen stufenweisen, modellgetriebenen Integrationsansatz bereit. In diesem Beitrag werden neben der LSEM Plattform selbst, die durch die Plattform unterstützen Integrationsarten vorgestellt. Näher beschrieben wird daneben ein Lösungsansatz zur modellgetriebenen Integration von Anwendungssystemen in die LSEM Plattform.
- Abstract: As a result of globalization and the falling profit margin, companies started to outsource their processes ensured by contracts. This is also happening within the logistics service sector. The resulting networks, which must be managed and monitored, have a very collaborative and dynamic character. Based on the Fourth Party Logistics Provider business model that aims at establishing as a coordinator of such networks the usability of complex event processing is discussed. A typical workflow exemplifies the challenges in terms of monitoring. Besides the theoretical model a possible solution approach with the use of complex event processing is discussed.
- Abstract: The planning of complex logistics service systems is increasingly characterized as a collaborative process with various participants involved. The planning process of a logistics service system can be rendered by a Fourth Party Logistics Service Provider (4PL) together with an existing network of logistics partners. Simulation can be used to improve the decision-making process in the planning phase and to detect errors that can become cost intensive in the future. This paper outlines how simulation is integrated into a planning approach for a 4PL. The focus is on the derivation of goals and requirements from the specific characteristics of a 4PL. Based on these goals and requirements an initial integrated planning and simulation procedure is presented.
- Abstract: The logistics service sector is characterized by growing complexity and a trend towards cooperating logistics providers that integrate their services in logistics service networks. The rather new business model Fourth Party Logistics service provider (4PLP) plays an important role in such logistics service networks as it acts as a central integrator, coordinating manager of flows of goods and information between consigners, consignees and participating logistics service providers. One, if not the most essential, resource of a 4PLP is the information platform that integrates all involved stakeholders, allows for an integrated end-to-end logistics service management and supports the various tasks of the logistics service lifecycle. This paper presents the current state in the development of the Logistics Service Engineering and Management platform, a platform supporting the 4PL business model. It presents its operations and architecture building up on the service orientation design paradigm. Furthermore, the current implementation of the platform and its core technologies are outlined.
- Abstract: Our research is directed towards agile supply chains enabling enterprises to quickly respond to individual customer demand. From this perspective, agility encompasses three dimensions of adaptivity: space, time, and economy. Supply chain agility can be achieved by exploiting the most fundamental resource of any enterprise: knowledge. Studying supply chains, we regard all their tiers, participants, and potential relationships, as the search space for fulfilling individual customer demand. We study supply chains from a knowledge-based coordination perspective and regard logistics as the guiding conceptualization. The contribution of this research is a logistics knowledge infrastructure. We report about applying parts of this infrastructure to coordination problems in three selected case studies.
- Abstract: Determining optimal routes for given freight is a core decision in logistics. In intermodal logistics, freight routing has to consider the interfaces between different modes of transportation, such as hand-over offsets, load changes, and organizational procedures. We study this problem from the perspective of Service-Oriented Computing (SOC). We (1) propose representing intermodal transport systems as a set of service offerings and customer demand as service requests, (2) define freight routing as a service composition problem, and (3) develop a composition algorithm for transportation services.
- Abstract: With an increasing demand for higher value services, comprehensive support for service customization, provisioning and management is needed. This paper details ongoing research work regarding a service management approach, which supports the handling of service artifacts during the service lifecycle. The approach introduces an information model for e-Service Management, as well as a tailored view concept to provide individual views to participating stakeholders. The outlined approach tackles nonfunctional management issues which lead to better maintainable, adaptable and extendable service systems.
- Abstract: Service oriented environments consist of electronic and business services. Business services encapsulate core business activities whereas electronic services support the operation of business services by means of enterprise software applications. In environments with a large number of business and electronic services, methods for the selection of electronic services for certain business services are needed. This paper presents a conceptual approach for a preselection of electronic services that potentially fits the needs of a given business service based on semantic concept correspondence. The approach is based on the hypothesis that the higher the correspondence between semantically described concepts of business and electronic services the higher the probability of a match between them. This will support decision making during electronic service evaluation. The approach is elaborated based on certain requirements and evaluated by a use case scenario of the logistics domain.
- Abstract: Engineering and management of service systems and services is complex and involves the legwork of many different stakeholders. A structured approach may lead to significant better results in these tasks. Modeling becomes necessary to cope with the complexity of service systems and services. Due to the big variety of stakeholders and their interests, many models on the same services exist. In this paper we therefore present a method on how to develop a unified service model for the logistics domain which has the ability to integrate various stakeholder models and to keep them in a consistent manner, so that each model stays valid when put into model space.
- Abstract: Determining the QoS (quality of service) of composite Web services is of crucial importance for both service providers and consumers. However, service descriptions of constituent services are often heterogeneous which makes the aggregation of multiple single-service QoS difficult. In this paper, we address the heterogeneity problem from the perspective of knowledge engineering. We propose a QoS aggregation ontology; i.e., a formal parameter classification which can be used to determine the right aggregation for annotated QoS parameters based on workflow patterns.
- Abstract: Die Etablierung eines adäquaten Ansatzes für das Management von Service-Artefakten in Service-Systemen ist eine der grundlegenden Voraussetzungen für die Sicherstellung und Erfüllung von Service Levels. Insbesondere in komplexen Service-Landschaften mit vielfältigen Service-Consumer- und -Providerbeziehungen ist eine transparente Darstellung des Beziehungsgeflechtes und den daraus erwachsenden Konsequenzen unabdingbar. Im Rahmen dieses Beitrags erfolgt eine Darstellung von Anforderungen an einen Ansatz zur Unterstützung des Electronic Service Management, welcher die vorgenannten Aspekte explizit adressiert. Aufbauend auf den definierten Anforderungen erfolgt eine Evaluierung und Bewertung bestehender Ansätze aus dem wissenschaftlichen und kommerziellen Umfeld.
- Abstract: Service oriented environments consist of business and electronic services. Business services encapsulate core business logic and activities whereas electronic services support the operation of business services by means of software applications. In environments with a large number of business and electronic services an approach for selecting electronic services that satisfy certain business services concerns is needed. This paper presents an approach for matching business and electronic services based on semantic entity similarity.
- Abstract: Modern logistics systems are characterized by an increasing structural complexity and dynamicity, which arises from trends in the global economy, decomposition of supply chains and individual customer demands. These trends have amplified the need for greater flexibility in the (re-)configuration of supply chains and, additionally, the demand to move from centralized to decentralized IT solutions for planning and control. This paper presents an approach to achieve flexibility and decentralization in supply chain configuration and management. The approach combines loosely-coupled logistics services with semantic technologies for a unified representation of diverse logistics data and service functionalities. The contribution is a formal knowledge model of the information in the logistics domain using ontologies. The paper further discusses the semantic representation of logistic services in a framework that enables automated and intelligent techniques for discovery, ranking, execution and efficient composition of services into more complex and flexible logistics processes.
- Abstract: Logistics service chains are characterized by multiple service providers contributing to the provision of a composite logistics service to a customer. In particular, various contractual dependencies exist across service chain levels. The object of our research is resource allocation which has to consider these dependencies to avoid overcommitment and overpurchasing. We propose a multi-tier negotiation protocol for solving this problem. The proposed artifact is developed from an interaction protocol engineering perspective in accordance with the design science paradigm. First evaluation experiments show that the protocol prevents overcommitments and overpurchasing, leading to higher expected profits for logistics service providers.
- Abstract: The object of our research is resource allocation which considers contractual dependencies across service chain tiers to avoid overcommitment and overpurchasing. We propose a multi-tier negotiation protocol for solving this problem. The proposed artifact is developed from an interaction protocol engineering perspective and a protocol specication is given. Besides basic safety properties like the absence of deadlock, we formally verify that the protocol prevents overcommitments and overpurchasing by means of the model checker Spin.
Beiträge in SammelwerkenLeukel, J.; Kirn, S.: Toward Semantics-based Service Composition in Transport Logistics. In: Sugumaran, V.; Gulla, J.A. (Hrsg.): Applied Semantic Technologies: Using Semantics in Intelligent Information Processing, Taylor & Francis, 2012, S. 379-394.
Leukel, J.; Ludwig, A.; Norta, A.: Introduction to the Second International Workshop on Service Oriented Computing in Logistics (SOC-LOG 2010). In: Service Oriented Computing. ICSOC 2010 International Workshops, Springer LNCS Vol. 6568, 2011, S. 210-212.